Rust 总结:全模式列举

原文:https://course.rs/basic/match-pattern/all-patterns.html

匹配字面值

let x = 1;

match x {
    1 => println!("one"),
    2 => println!("two"),
    3 => println!("three"),
    _ => println!("anything"),
}

匹配命名变量

fn main() {
    let x = Some(5);
    let y = 10;

    match x {
        Some(50) => println!("Got 50"),
        Some(y) => println!("Matched, y = {:?}", y),
        _ => println!("Default case, x = {:?}", x),
    }

    println!("at the end: x = {:?}, y = {:?}", x, y);
}

单分支多模式

let x = 1;

match x {
    1 | 2 => println!("one or two"),
    3 => println!("three"),
    _ => println!("anything"),
}

通过序列 ..= 匹配值的范围

let x = 5;

match x {
    1..=5 => println!("one through five"),
    _ => println!("something else"),
}
let x = 'c';

match x {
    'a'..='j' => println!("early ASCII letter"),
    'k'..='z' => println!("late ASCII letter"),
    _ => println!("something else"),
}
fn main() {
    match_number(3);
}
fn match_number(n: i32) {
    match n {
        // 匹配一个单独的值
        1 => println!("One!"),
        // 使用 `|` 填空,不要使用 `..` 或 `..=`
        2..=3| 4 | 5 => println!("match 2 -> 5"),
        // 匹配一个闭区间的数值序列
        6..=10 => {
            println!("match 6 -> 10")
        },
        _ => {
            println!("match 11 -> +infinite")
        }
    }
}

解构并分解值

解构结构体

struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,
}

fn main() {
    let p = Point { x: 0, y: 7 };

    let Point { x: a, y: b } = p;
    assert_eq!(0, a);
    assert_eq!(7, b);
}
fn main() {
    let p = Point { x: 0, y: 7 };

    match p {
        Point { x, y: 0 } => println!("On the x axis at {}", x),
        Point { x: 0, y } => println!("On the y axis at {}", y),
        Point { x, y } => println!("On neither axis: ({}, {})", x, y),
    }
}

解构枚举

enum Message {
    Quit,
    Move { x: i32, y: i32 },
    Write(String),
    ChangeColor(i32, i32, i32),
}

fn main() {
    let msg = Message::ChangeColor(0, 160, 255);

    match msg {
        Message::Quit => {
            println!("The Quit variant has no data to destructure.")
        }
        Message::Move { x, y } => {
            println!(
                "Move in the x direction {} and in the y direction {}",
                x,
                y
            );
        }
        Message::Write(text) => println!("Text message: {}", text),
        Message::ChangeColor(r, g, b) => {
            println!(
                "Change the color to red {}, green {}, and blue {}",
                r,
                g,
                b
            )
        }
    }
}

解构嵌套的结构体和枚举

enum Color {
   Rgb(i32, i32, i32),
   Hsv(i32, i32, i32),
}

enum Message {
    Quit,
    Move { x: i32, y: i32 },
    Write(String),
    ChangeColor(Color),
}

fn main() {
    let msg = Message::ChangeColor(Color::Hsv(0, 160, 255));

    match msg {
        Message::ChangeColor(Color::Rgb(r, g, b)) => {
            println!(
                "Change the color to red {}, green {}, and blue {}",
                r,
                g,
                b
            )
        }
        Message::ChangeColor(Color::Hsv(h, s, v)) => {
            println!(
                "Change the color to hue {}, saturation {}, and value {}",
                h,
                s,
                v
            )
        }
        _ => ()
    }
}

解构结构体和元组

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
struct Point {
     x: i32,
     y: i32,
 }

let ((feet, inches), Point {x, y}) = ((3, 10), Point { x: 3, y: -10 });
}

忽略模式中的值

使用 _ 忽略整个值

fn foo(_: i32, y: i32) {
    println!("This code only uses the y parameter: {}", y);
}

fn main() {
    foo(3, 4);
}

使用嵌套的 _ 忽略部分值

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
let mut setting_value = Some(5);
let new_setting_value = Some(10);

match (setting_value, new_setting_value) {
    (Some(_), Some(_)) => {
        println!("Can't overwrite an existing customized value");
    }
    _ => {
        setting_value = new_setting_value;
    }
}

println!("setting is {:?}", setting_value);
}
let numbers = (2, 4, 8, 16, 32);

match numbers {
    (first, _, third, _, fifth) => {
        println!("Some numbers: {}, {}, {}", first, third, fifth)
    },
}

用 .. 忽略剩余值

struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,
    z: i32,
}

let origin = Point { x: 0, y: 0, z: 0 };

match origin {
    Point { x, .. } => println!("x is {}", x),
}

用 .. 来忽略元组中间的某些值

fn main() {
    let numbers = (2, 4, 8, 16, 32);

    match numbers {
        (first, .., last) => {
            println!("Some numbers: {}, {}", first, last);
        },
    }
}

匹配守卫提供的额外条件

let num = Some(4);

match num {
    Some(x) if x < 5 => println!("less than five: {}", x),
    Some(x) => println!("{}", x),
    None => (),
}
fn main() {
    let x = Some(5);
    let y = 10;

    match x {
        Some(50) => println!("Got 50"),
        Some(n) if n == y => println!("Matched, n = {}", n),
        _ => println!("Default case, x = {:?}", x),
    }

    println!("at the end: x = {:?}, y = {}", x, y);
}
let x = 4;
let y = false;

match x {
    4 | 5 | 6 if y => println!("yes"),
    _ => println!("no"),
}

@绑定

#![allow(unused)]
fn main() {
enum Message {
    Hello { id: i32 },
}

let msg = Message::Hello { id: 5 };

match msg {
    Message::Hello { id: id_variable @ 3..=7 } => {
        println!("Found an id in range: {}", id_variable)
    },
    Message::Hello { id: 10..=12 } => {
        println!("Found an id in another range")
    },
    Message::Hello { id } => {
        println!("Found some other id: {}", id)
    },
}
}

@前绑定后解构(Rust 1.56 新增)

#[derive(Debug)]
struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,
}

fn main() {
    // 绑定新变量 `p`,同时对 `Point` 进行解构
    let p @ Point {x: px, y: py } = Point {x: 10, y: 23};
    println!("x: {}, y: {}", px, py);
    println!("{:?}", p);


    let point = Point {x: 10, y: 5};
    if let p @ Point {x: 10, y} = point {
        println!("x is 10 and y is {} in {:?}", y, p);
    } else {
        println!("x was not 10 :(");
    }
}
fn main() {
    match 1 {
        num @ (1 | 2) => {
            println!("{}", num);
        }
        _ => {}
    }
}
struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,
}

fn main() {
    // 填空,让 p 匹配第二个分支
    let p = Point { x: 5, y: 10 };

    match p {
        Point { x, y: 0 } => println!("On the x axis at {}", x),
        // 第二个分支
        Point { x: 0..=5, y: y@ (10 | 20 | 30) } => println!("On the y axis at {}", y),
        Point { x, y } => println!("On neither axis: ({}, {})", x, y),
    }
}
fn main() {
    let mut v = String::from("hello,");
    let r = &mut v;

    match r {
        // The type of value is &mut String
       value => value.push_str(" world!")
    }
}

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